Animal bite-mark identification using wax tags
How to use wax tags for animal bite-mark identification
Contact Sue.Unsworth@lincoln.ac.nz if you would like a wax tag to try this at your school.
Biological control - examples from research at Lincoln University
View a presentation which contains three video clips of parasitic wasps used in the control of aphids. PDF including video (PDF 9MB)| Movie format (WMV 8MB)
Investigation of the life of the praying mantis
This worksheet describes the life cycle of the praying mantis that was first recorded in New Zealand in the 1870's.
You can also find out how to rear praying mantis, from the type of food you will need to supply to the accommodation they will need!
Praying mantis worksheet (PDF 83 KB)
What's a worm worth?
This activity, from research conducted by Profs.
, could be used as a practical investigation to support the teaching of biology, environmental science and agriculture and horticulture at Levels 1, 2 and 3. It could be simplified as a practical exercise for Year 9 or Year 10.
It introduces the idea of ecosystem services and the economic value to mankind.
Any feedback on this activity? Email Sue at email@example.com.
Earthworm Worksheet Year 12 (PDF 13 KB)
Earthworm Worksheet Yr 9 - 13 (PDF 69 KB)
Investigate the effect of temperature on slug activity
A worksheet using slugs suitable for use with senior Biology students as an introduction to the Animal Investigation Achievement Standard, Biology 3.1.
To view the slugs in greater detail, click on the picture.
Investigate the effect of temperature on slug activity (DOC 62 KB)
Understand aphids, how they move, feed and much more!
Investigating Aphids (PDF 39 KB)
Investigating pest control on broad beans
The study of the relationship between living things and their environment. Biological control is the use of living organisms or their products to control pest populations.
Investigating pest control on broad beans (PDF 1109 KB)
Biological control of gorse
These investigations on the biological control of gorse by the gorse spider mite and further investigations on the gorse pod moth have been developed by Craig Sixtus.
They could be used for A.S. 90713, 3.1. Carry out a practical investigation into an aspect of an organisms ecological niche with guidance.
Bio-control of gorse (PDF 81 KB)
Gorse pod moth (PDF 79 KB)
New Zealand Ecology Blog
Want to know more about new research in the ecology area in New Zealand? EcoLincNZ(http://ecolincnz.blogspot.com/) is a new blog set up by researchers in the Bio-Protection and Ecology Division at Lincoln University to highlight recent and ongoing research that they and their students have been involved with. The blog covers all sorts of areas from invasive species to behavioural conservation to biogeography and evolution and is written to inform the interested layperson.
Please visit the site. We hope that it will provide for some stimulating conversations in the classroom.
Interactive computer model for possum control
Worksheets, introduction and questions accompany this downloadable interactive computer model. Your pupils can investigate possum control and relate the control methods to cost constraints. Below are two formats for your convenience.
Possum Pak instructions & worksheet (PDF 155 KB)
Possum Control interactive model (EXE 396 KB)
Possum Control Computer Model - zipped (ZIP 100 KB)
Introduction: who killed the leaf miner?
The aim of this exercise is to analyse the population dynamics of a moth which spends its life as a larva (caterpillar) inside the leaves of oak trees. The adult moth lays its egg on the lower surface of the leaf. The larva which hatches enters the leaf and feeds on the mesophyll cells between the upper and lower epidermises. As the caterpillar develops to a pupa and then to an adult moth, it is exposed to a range of risks of death. Birds may rip open the mine and eat the larva. Small parasitic wasps (introduced from Italy in late 1950's as a biocontrol agent) may sting the larva through the mine and lay an egg in the larva’s body. This egg then hatches into a larva which consumes the moth larva from within. Adverse weather conditions may destroy the mine or the moth larva may successfully pupate and eventually emerge as an adult moth.
By using careful detective work, we can examine mines one by one to determine the proportion of larvae which become adult moths and the proportion which are killed by each mortality factor e.g. predation by birds, parasitism, attack by fungi, accidental death etc.
Animal and plant populations change. The ways they change are:
In this class, we will be investigating the D (death rate) in BIDE. The N (numbers) of mines of the leaf miner, Phyllonorycter messaniella, found on 100 holm oak (Quercus ilex) leaves at a distance of 30 cm into the hedge was found to be 75.
- Check that you have a total of 50 mines to examine.
- Using a binocular microscope and forceps, examine and dissect each mine in turn (by removal of the lower leaf surface) and classify the fate of the leaf miner into the following table.
|Successful emergence of the adult moth(1)
||Death by bird predation (2)
||Larva killed by parasitic wasps (3)
||Other causes of death|
- moth pupal case in the mine or protruding through a hole in the mine surface
- large jagged tear in the mine with no larva or pupa inside
- a small neat, circular hole may be present in the mine; on removal of the lower mine surface, a small black pupa or a white silken cocoon may be present (empty or occupied)
- Describe the location of the frass (insect droppings) inside the mine.
- You may notice live mites within the mine. Name 2 possible reasons for finding them here.
- Several mines contain a caterpillar head capsule. What does this suggest in terms of the leaf miner life cycle?
- What percentage of the oak leaves 30 cms into the hedge are affected by mines?
- These parasitic wasps are endoparasites. What does this term mean?
- Explain why the new leaves are not affected by the leaf miner?
- Suggest why the leaf miner lays its eggs on the under surface of the leaves.
- Discuss how studying population dynamics can determine the kind of management a species requires (clues; conservation, pest control, sustainable harvest)
- In a closed system (where there is no immigration or emigration) what does the term carrying capacity imply?
- Discuss the biological control of the leaf miner in New Zealand.
- Discuss how ‘beetle banks’ can be used in farming to increase numbers of an insect pests natural enemies.
(extra information for Qu 11 can be found at Te Taiao. No 4. Nov 2004, ISSN 1176-2454 Tangled Web: A new addition to the natural enemy suite controlling leaf-miner.)
* If you would like to get a copy of the pictures for this worksheet and the NCEA style answers please email firstname.lastname@example.org
Integrated pest management
This PowerPoint was presented by Dr Bruce Chapman at the Science Teacher Workshop, 'Enhancing the New Science Curriculum', 16th Nov 2009.
It covers the use of compatible control tactics (chemical, cultural, biological) to maintain pest populations below economic thresholds.
Integrated Pest Management (PDF 990 KB)
Drowning Zealandia, colonising the Chathams
This PowerPoint presentation was prepared by Dr
for the 'Biology Teachers Cluster Group Meeting' Term 3, 2009.
This looks at the role of over-water dispersal in the biogeography of New Zealand. The biology agrees with the geology.
Drowning Zealandia, colonising the Chathams (PDF 3 MB)