While there is no consensus in the literature on the exact definition of resilience and its relation to other concepts, such as vulnerability (see Turner, 2010), there is agreement on the essence of resilience thinking as a new paradigm that explicitly seeks to address change rather than avoid it. The focus of resilience is on how a system functions and how its elements interact rather than its stability as such. Thus, understanding the structure and processes of existing systems, including key functional units, and how they respond to stress factors, could inform proactive adaptation to these factors and increase overall resilience. Accordingly, the metaphor of Gunderson and Holling’s (2001) adaptive cycle of a system being in continuous development and reorganisation is essential in resilience thinking (Carpenter et al., 2001).
The following projects contribute to Resilience as an outcome:
Tourism and Oil
Peak Oil Think Tank
Governance of commons
Towards a renewable electricity system
Adapting to climate change in New Zealand
Protected Areas, Energy, Climate Change