Extracted pages from E. O. Wilson 1988 about biodiversity
Examples of high and low-diversity farmland
Phacelia tanacetifolia in maize fields to produce shelter, nectar, alternative food and pollen (SNAP) for natural enemies
A diversified farmland to enhance several ecosystem services. Illustration: Andrew Holder / Xerces Society
Cabbage monoculture as an example of low-diversity farmland
Altieri MA, 1999. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 74:19–31.
Altieri MA, Toledo VM, 2011. The agroecological revolution in Latin America: rescuing nature, ensuring food sovereignty and empowering peasants. Journal of Peasant Studies 38:587–612.
Cardinale BJ, Duffy JE, Gonzalez A, et al, 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486:59–67.
Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B, et al, 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:557–581.
Gurr G, Wratten SD, Landis DA, You M, 2017. Habitat management to suppress pest populations: Progress and prospects. Annual Review of Entomology 62:91–109.
Gurr GM, Lu Z, Zheng X, et al, 2016. Multi-country evidence that crop diversification promotes ecological intensification of agriculture. Nature Plants 2:16014.
Koohafkan P, Altieri MA, Gimenez EH, 2011. Green agriculture: foundations for biodiverse, resilient and productive agricultural systems. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 10:1–13.
Kremen C, Miles A, 2012. Ecosystem services in biologically diversified versus conventional farming systems: Benefits, externalities, and trade-offs. Ecology and Society 17:40.
Lefcheck JS, Byrnes JEK, Isbell F, et al, 2015. Biodiversity enhances ecosystem multifunctionality across trophic levels and habitats. Nature Communications 6:6936.
Lichtenberg EM, Kennedy CM, Kremen C, et al, 2017. A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes. Global Change Biology 1–12.
Pickett JA, Woodcock CM, Midega CAO, Khan ZR, 2014. Push-pull farming systems. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 26:125–132.
Roberts L, Brower A, Kerr G, et al, 2015. The Nature of Wellbeing: How Nature’s ecosystem services contribute to the wellbeing of New Zealand and New Zealanders. New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
Sala OE, Chapin III FS, Armesto JJ, et al, 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774.
Scarratt SL, Wratten SD, Shishehbor P, 2008. Measuring parasitoid movement from floral resources in a vineyard. Biological Control 46:107–113.
Steffen W, Persson Å, Deutsch L, et al, 2011. The Anthropocene: From global change to planetary stewardship. AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment 40:739–761.
Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockström J, et al, 2015. Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347:1259855.
Tilman D, Reich PB, Knops JMH, 2006. Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature 441:629–632.
Tomich TP, Brodt S, Ferris H, et al, 2011. Agroecology: A Review from a global-change perspective. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36:193–222.
Tscharntke T, Karp DS, Chaplin-kramer R, et al, 2016. When natural habitat fails to enhance biological pest control - Five hypotheses. Biological Conservation 204 B: 449-458.
Wezel A, Casagrande M, Celette F, et al, 2014. Agroecological practices for sustainable agriculture. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 34:1–20.
Wilson EO (1988) Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington DC, Estados Unidos.
Wratten SD, Gillespie M, Decourtye A, et al, 2012. Pollinator habitat enhancement: Benefits to other ecosystem services. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 159:112–122.