Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES)

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Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES)

An approach to encouraging the uptake of ES-enhancing farming systems is through “payment for ecosystem services” (PES) to private landowners (FAO, 2007). In this approach, those that benefit from provision of ES make payments to those that supply them, thereby maintaining ES. Examples of working PES schemes currently in practice are found in different areas of the world, such as Costa Rica, Indonesia, The Philippines, Nepal, China, India, United States, Kenya, Tanzania and Europe (Sandhu et al. 2016). The current focus of these schemes is on water, carbon and biodiversity in addressing environmental problems through positive incentives to land managers (FAO, 2007). Such schemes would not only help to improve the environment and human well-being but also ensure food security and long-term farm sustainability (Rosegrant and Cline 2003). The above description was based on Sandhu and Wratten (2013).



Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2007. The state of food and agriculture: Paying farmers for environmental services. Rome, Italy. 222p.

Rosegrant MW, Cline SA, 2003. Global food security: Challenges and policies. Science 302, 1917-1919.

Sandhu H, Wratten S, Porter J, Costanza R, Pretty J, Reganold J, 2016. Mainstreaming ecosystem services into future farming. Solutions, March-April: 40–47.

Sandhu H, Wratten S, 2013. Ecosystem services in farmland and cities. In: Ecosystem services in agricultural and urban landscapes. Wratten S, Sandhu H, Cullen R, Costanza R, (eds.). Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 3-15p.

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